Drossdorf, Germany (August 03, 2018) – In recent years, consumers’ requirements for the environmental safety of the produced beef have sharply increased. One of the most important factors directly affecting the sanitary and hygienic properties of the meat of fattened steers and meat cattle is the level of soil and forage crops contamination with various toxicants in the region. One of the key environmental factors negatively affecting the quality characteristics of meat products is the excessive accumulation of heavy metal salts in feed components of the diets of fattened animals. Excessive intake of heavy metal salts with feed contributes to a decrease in the body weight gain of young ruminants for fattening, deterioration of the environmental safety of the resulting meat products. All these negative environmental consequences are due to the manifestation of a depressing effect on the state of the digestive metabolism of heavy metal ions in fattening animals. This problem is aggravated by the ability of heavy metals to gradually accumulate in the organs and tissues of animals, to poison their body, helping to inhibit metabolic processes, reducing meat productivity and the quality of beef produced. Under these conditions, one of the most effective ways of detoxification of heavy metal salts is the introduction of feed preparations into their diets, adsorbents that bind them firmly on their surface in the gastrointestinal tract and remove them from the animal’s body, thereby increasing the ecological purity of young steers and meat cattle. Moreover, in the practice of feeding young ruminants on fattening, feed preparations of adsorbents of a new generation are being introduced more and more often. They often exhibit synergistic effects on metabolic processes with a wide range of advantageous impacts.
The goal of this research was to study the effects of the adsorbent and multifunctional feed additive Sanbio SANA on the state of rumen metabolism in fattening bull, whose diets had an excess content of lead, zinc and cadmium salts.
1. Material and Methods
Two groups of young fattening bulls at the age of 6 months, 20 heads in each, were formed. The objects of research were the animals of the Holstein breed. The duration of their fattening was 12 months before they reached the age of 18 months. The supplement Sanbio SANA was consumed by the young animals of the compared groups in the composition of mixed fodders by mixing with other ingredients in accordance with the nutritional standards of the breeding company according to the scheme shown in Table 1. The content of heavy metal ions (Zn, Pb, Cd) in the rations (summer period) for experimental animals (Table 2) was determined using an atomic adsorption spectrometer. The rate of input into compound feed is 1 kg Sanbio SANA per ton of compound feed.
Sanbio SANA is a feed additive designed to absorb mycotoxins and endotoxins from feed for farm animals (ruminants, cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, fish). The manufacturer is the SANBOS GmbH (Germany). As the main components, Sanbio SANA contains micronized montmorillonite-illite which is activated in electric-magnetic polarization process (SANBIO process). The sorption capacity of the drug is at least 98% for Aflatoxin. Sanbio SANA is a grey powder, made from natural source, practically insoluble in water. The input rate is 1-5 kg / ton for large animals, such as ruminants (milk cows, meat cattle).
In the selected feed samples, the content of heavy metal salts was determined in the composition of the winter and summer rations for feeding the bulls of the compared groups. So, in the composition of the winter diet of the experimental animals, an excess of the maximum permissible concentrations for zinc concentration was observed by 68.5%, lead– by 67.5%, and cadmium– by 64.2%, in the composition of the summer diet this excess of the values for the indicated elements was similar.
Scar fluid samples were collected through the esophagus using a medical probe. The amount of volatile fatty acids was determined by steam distillation in a Markgam apparatus. The content of heavy metal ions was determined by use of atomic adsorption method with a spectrophotometer.
Table 1. Scheme of scientific and economic experience (n=20)
|Basic ration, in which an excess content of Zn, Pb and Cd salts was wound
|Basic ration + adsorbent Sanbio SANA in the amount of 1 kg / t of compound feed
Table 2. Feed formula (n=20)
|Concentrated feed pellets
|Complex of microelements
Table 3. Feed properties (n=20)
|The diet contains:
2. Results and Discussion
The dynamics of the growth of the experimental bulls was observed following the results of the control individual weighing once a month. The weighing data at the beginning and at the end of the experiment for fattening young ruminants are shown in Table 3.
According to the results of the studies, it was found that by the end of fattening at the age of 18 months, the animals of the treated group had the highest body weight. Moreover, the difference between the animals of the compared groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).
In the course of the experiment, it was found that when feeding the fattening steers with the supplement, an increase in live weight and an improvement in their slaughter indicators occurred. Taking into account the complexity of taking samples of ruminal fluid and conducting studies of their chemical composition, it was evaluated the effect of the tested dietary supplements on the indicators of the state of digestive metabolism in bulls.
Table 4 shows data characterizing changes in the number of microflora representatives, the pH value of the medium and the concentration of ammonia in the contents of the rumen under the influence of the conditions of their feeding.
Under the conditions of using the adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal salts from the body, the pH value of the rumen fluid medium and the ammonia content in the treated group was higher compared to control group, which characterizing the increased intensity of digestive metabolism in young animals of the treated group.
At the same time, under the influence of the synergistic action between the tested preparations, the elimination of heavy metal ions (Zn, Pb and Cd) from the body in the fattening bulls of the treated group was more effective.
The consequence of this relative to the control analogs in them was the activation of growth in the contents of the rumen of the number of representatives of ciliates (producers of cellulases and amylases) by 57.65% (P<0.05) and bacteria of the Flavobacterium vitarumen group (producers of proteinases) – by 34.39% (P<0.05).
Table 4. Changes of live weight per head, kg (n = 20)
|Group of bulls
|at the age of 6 months
|at the age of 18 months
|Live weight gain, kg
Table 5. Changes in the number of microflora representatives, the pH value of the medium and the concentration of ammonia in the contents of the rumen of animals (n=5)
|Group of bulls
|Number of ciliates, thousand/ ml
|Flavobacterium vitarumen, thousand/ ml
|Ammonia level, mg %
|pH of the medium
Table 6. Changes in the activity of enzymes in the rumen fluid of experimental animals (n=5)
|Group of bulls
|amylase, mg starch
Table 7. Changes in VFA concentration in the contents of the proventriculus experimental animals (n=5)
|Group of bulls
|amount of VFA, mmol/100 ml
|Molar ratio of VFA, %:
These types of protozoa and microorganisms inhabiting the rumen of ruminants, as mentioned above, actively produce enzymes of the hydrolase class, which contribute to the intensification of the destruction of protein, fiber and starchy feed compounds in the contents of the rumen of fattened young cattle. This position is confirmed by the results of changes in the activity of the analyzed enzymes in the rumen fluid of the animals of the compared groups under the influence of the tested drugs, shown in Table 5.
As shown in Table 5, the combined use of Sanbio SANA in diets with an excess content of heavy metal salts due to an increase in the number of these representatives of beneficial microflora made it possible to activate the processes of digestive metabolism in young bulls.
Due to this, the animals of the treated group had a significant (P<0.05) superiority over the control group in the contents of the rumen in terms of proteinase activity by 8.37%, cellulases – by 5.91% and amylases – by 9.1%. This contributed to a better level of digestion and assimilation of protein, fiber and nitrogen-free extractives of rations by young animals of the treated group versus control group.
It has been proven that when the multifunctional additive Sanbio SANA was introduced into the feed of fattening bulls, the number of ciliates, the activity of proteinases and cellulases increased in the rumen of animals of the experimental group, which contributed to the optimization of the amount of volatile fatty acids.
With an increase in the breakdown of poorly and readily soluble polysaccharides of feed under the action of enzymes secreted by the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, their metabolites in the rumen of ruminants are actively fermented to form volatile fatty acids. By participating directly in the metabolic processes of volatile fatty acids, they can influence the growth rate of young cattle for fattening while reducing the risk of intoxication with heavy metal salts. The data of the influence of the tested feed additives on changes in the concentration of volatile fatty acids in the contents of the rumen of the experimental animals are shown in Table 6.
It was found that the processes of detoxification of heavy metal salts by use of Sanbio SANA was efficient, therefore, fattening bulls of the treated group in the rumen fluid accumulated volatile fatty acids more actively, reliably (P<0.05) outstripping the animals of the control group in this indicator by 1.84 mmol/100 ml or 22.97%.
Consequently, to intensify growth and activate the processes of digestive metabolism due to better elimination of salts of heavy metals, it is recommendable to jointly introduce the multifunctional additive / adsorbent Sanbio SANA in the dosage of 1 kg/t of feed for preventive purpose and 4 kg/t for emergency purpose in the composition of the diets of fattening young cattle compound feed.
The positive effects at a glance:
- Increase of live weight of fattening bulls
- Removal of heavy metal salts
- Improve of metabolism, digestion and assimilation of protein, fiber and nitrogen-free extractives
- Improve of feed conversion
- Improvement of health status
- Safety and tolerance when used dietary additions.
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